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Und dabei Wm Crailsheim es nicht nur wichtig, Double Triple Chile Brasilien oder Fortunes of Sparta an. - Unser ReiseangebotDer römisch-katholische Klerus erhob seine kritische Stimme immer öfter und prangerte die Bedingungen der armen Bevölkerung an. In Chile, that number is 6, km. Lebanese in Chile. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Real Latin America Experts. Hondurans in Chile. Brasilien Chile live resultater (og gratis video streaming på nettet) starter den kl. UTC tid i FIBA World Cup, Americas Qualifiers, Group B, International. Chile is an attractive market for Swiss SMEs and an ideal pilot country and hub in Latin America. Compared to other Latin countries, it offers political and economic stability, legal certainty and a business friendly environment. Chile (/ ˈ tʃ ɪ l i / (), / ˈ tʃ ɪ l eɪ /; Spanish:), officially the Republic of Chile (Spanish: República de Chile (help · info)), is a country in western South fs-yifa.com occupies a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Chile covers an area of , square kilometres (, sq mi) and has a population of million as of
The Brazilian War of Independence , which had already begun along this process, spread through the northern, northeastern regions and in Cisplatina province.
As the new Emperor could not exert his constitutional powers until he came of age, a regency was set up by the National Assembly.
These emerged from the dissatisfaction of the provinces with the central power, coupled with old and latent social tensions peculiar to a vast, slaveholding and newly independent nation state.
During the last phase of the monarchy, internal political debate centered on the issue of slavery. The Atlantic slave trade was abandoned in ,  as a result of the British Aberdeen Act , but only in May after a long process of internal mobilization and debate for an ethical and legal dismantling of slavery in the country , was the institution formally abolished.
The foreign-affairs policies of the monarchy dealt with issues with the countries of the Southern Cone with whom Brazil had borders.
Although there was no desire among the majority of Brazilians to change the country's form of government ,  on 15 November , in disagreement with the majority of Army officers, as well as with rural and financial elites for different reasons , the monarchy was overthrown by a military coup.
The early republican government was nothing more than a military dictatorship, with army dominating affairs both in Rio de Janeiro and in the states.
Freedom of the press disappeared and elections were controlled by those in power. If in relation to its foreign policy, the country in this first republican period maintained a relative balance characterized by a success in resolving border disputes with neighboring countries,  only broken by the Acre War — and its involvement in World War I — ,    followed by a failed attempt to exert a prominent role in the League of Nations ;  Internally, from the crisis of Encilhamento    and the Armada Revolts ,  a prolonged cycle of financial, political and social instability began until the s, keeping the country besieged by various rebellions, both civilian    and military.
In the s, three failed attempts to remove Vargas and his supporters from power occurred. The first was the Constitutionalist Revolution in , led by the Paulista oligarchy.
The second was a Communist uprising in November , and the last one a putsch attempt by local fascists in May Foreign policy during the Vargas years was marked by the antecedents [ clarification needed ] and World War II.
Brazil remained neutral until August , when the country entered on the allied side ,   after suffering retaliation by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy , in a strategic dispute over the South Atlantic.
With the Allied victory in and the end of the Nazi-fascist regimes in Europe, Vargas's position became unsustainable and he was swiftly overthrown in another military coup, with democracy "reinstated" by the same army that had ended it 15 years earlier.
Several brief interim governments followed Vargas's suicide. The new regime was intended to be transitory  but gradually closed in on itself and became a full dictatorship with the promulgation of the Fifth Institutional Act in Slowly, however, the wear and tear of years of dictatorial power that had not slowed the repression, even after the defeat of the leftist guerrillas,  plus the inability to deal with the economic crises of the period and popular pressure, made an opening policy inevitable, which from the regime side was led by Generals Ernesto Geisel and Golbery do Couto e Silva.
He became unpopular during his tenure through failure to control the economic crisis and hyperinflation he inherited from the military regime.
In , Cardoso produced a highly successful Plano Real ,  that, after decades of failed economic plans made by previous governments attempting to curb hyperinflation, finally stabilized the Brazilian economy.
Enhanced by political and economic crises with evidence of involvement by politicians from all the primary political parties in several bribery and tax evasion schemes,   with large street protests for and against her ,  Rousseff was impeached by the Brazilian Congress in Starting in , there is a total change in Brazilian politics, with the overthrow of the left and the rise of conservatism in right.
Brazil occupies a large area along the eastern coast of South America and includes much of the continent's interior,  sharing land borders with Uruguay to the south; Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest; Bolivia and Peru to the west; Colombia to the northwest; and Venezuela , Guyana , Suriname and France French overseas region of French Guiana to the north.
It shares a border with every South American country except Ecuador and Chile. Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world, and third largest in the Americas, with a total area of 8,, Brazil is the longest country in the world, spanning 4, km 2, mi from north to south.
Brazil is also the only country in the world that has the equator and the Tropic of Capricorn running through it. Brazilian topography is also diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and scrublands.
In the north, the Guiana Highlands form a major drainage divide, separating rivers that flow south into the Amazon Basin from rivers that empty into the Orinoco River system, in Venezuela, to the north.
Brazil has a dense and complex system of rivers, one of the world's most extensive, with eight major drainage basins, all of which drain into the Atlantic.
The climate of Brazil comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area and varied topography, but most of the country is tropical.
The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from equatorial rainforests in the north and semiarid deserts in the northeast, to temperate coniferous forests in the south and tropical savannas in central Brazil.
An equatorial climate characterizes much of northern Brazil. There is no real dry season , but there are some variations in the period of the year when most rain falls.
Over central Brazil rainfall is more seasonal, characteristic of a savanna climate. The semiarid climatic region generally receives less than millimetres Brazil's large territory comprises different ecosystems, such as the Amazon rainforest , recognized as having the greatest biological diversity in the world,  with the Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado , sustaining the greatest biodiversity.
Scientists estimate that the total number of plant and animal species in Brazil could approach four million, mostly invertebrates.
Larger mammals include carnivores pumas , jaguars , ocelots , rare bush dogs , and foxes , and herbivores peccaries , tapirs , anteaters , sloths , opossums , and armadillos.
Deer are plentiful in the south, and many species of New World monkeys are found in the northern rain forests. By , Brazil's "dramatic policy-driven reduction in Amazon Basin deforestation" was a "global exception in terms of forest change", according to scientific journal Science.
However, in , when the Bolsonaro government came to power, the rate of deforestation of the Amazon rainforest increased sharply threatening to reach a tipping point after it the forest will collapse, having severe consequences for the world.
Using these fallacies, certain countries instead of helping, embarked on the media lies and behaved in a disrespectful manner and with a colonialist spirit.
President Jair Bolsonaro asserted Brazil's sovereignty over the Amazon. According to a GreenPeace article, the natural heritage of Brazil is severely threatened by cattle ranching and agriculture, logging, mining, resettlement, oil and gas extraction, over-fishing, wildlife trade, dams and infrastructure, water pollution, climate change, fire, and invasive species.
The form of government is a democratic federative republic , with a presidential system. The current president is Jair Bolsonaro.
The previous president, Michel Temer , replaced Dilma Rousseff after her impeachment. Judiciary authorities exercise jurisdictional duties almost exclusively.
Brazil is a democracy , according to the Democracy Index The political-administrative organization of the Federative Republic of Brazil comprises the Union, the states, the Federal District, and the municipalities.
The federation is set on five fundamental principles:  sovereignty, citizenship, dignity of human beings, the social values of labor and freedom of enterprise, and political pluralism.
The classic tripartite branches of government executive, legislative and judicial under a checks and balances system are formally established by the Constitution.
All members of the executive and legislative branches are directly elected. Voting is compulsory for the literate between 18 and 70 years old and optional for illiterates and those between 16 and 18 or beyond Fifteen political parties are represented in Congress.
It is common for politicians to switch parties, and thus the proportion of congressional seats held by particular parties changes regularly. The country has more than 40 active political parties, and only one of them defines itself as a right-wing party PSL , with a clear political imbalance.
The only party that claims to be purely liberal, without further consideration, is Novo. When asked about their ideological spectrum, Brazilian parties tend to give obtuse and non-conclusive answers on the subject.
Brazilian law is based on the civil law legal system  and civil law concepts prevail over common law practice.
Most of Brazilian law is codified, although non-codified statutes also represent a substantial part, playing a complementary role. Court decisions set out interpretive guidelines; however, they are seldom binding on other specific cases.
Doctrinal works and the works of academic jurists have strong influence in law creation and in law cases. The legal system is based on the Federal Constitution , promulgated on 5 October , and the fundamental law of Brazil.
All other legislation and court decisions must conform to its rules. States have their own constitutions, which must not contradict the Federal Constitution.
This system has been criticized over the last few decades for the slow pace of decision-making. Lawsuits on appeal may take several years to resolve, and in some cases more than a decade elapses before definitive rulings.
The armed forces of Brazil are the largest in Latin America by active personnel and the largest in terms of military equipment. Brazil's conscription policy gives it one of the world's largest military forces, estimated at more than 1.
Numbering close to , active personnel,  the Brazilian Army has the largest number of armored vehicles in South America , including armored transports and tanks.
Brazil's navy, the second-largest in the Americas, once operated some of the most powerful warships in the world with the two Minas Geraes -class dreadnoughts , which sparked a South American dreadnought race between Argentina, Brazil, and Chile.
The Air Force is the largest in Latin America and has about manned aircraft in service and effective about 67, personnel.
Brazil has not been invaded since during the Paraguayan War. Brazil's international relations are based on Article 4 of the Federal Constitution , which establishes non-intervention , self-determination , international cooperation and the peaceful settlement of conflicts as the guiding principles of Brazil's relationship with other countries and multilateral organizations.
According to the Constitution, the President has ultimate authority over foreign policy, while the Congress is tasked with reviewing and considering all diplomatic nominations and international treaties , as well as legislation relating to Brazilian foreign policy.
Brazil's foreign policy is a by-product of the country's position as a regional power in Latin America , a leader among developing countries , and an emerging world power.
Brazil is a founding member state of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries CPLP , also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth, an international organization and political association of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language.
An increasingly well-developed tool of Brazil's foreign policy is providing aid as a donor to other developing countries.
The scale of this aid places it on par with China and India. Of these, the first three are affiliated with federal authorities and the last two are subordinate to state governments.
All police forces are the responsibility of the executive branch of any of the federal or state powers. The country still has above-average levels of violent crime and particularly high levels of gun violence and homicide.
In , the World Health Organization WHO estimated the number of 32 deaths per , inhabitants, one of the highest rates of homicide of the world.
Brazil is a federation composed of 26 states , one federal district , and the municipalities. They have a governor and a unicameral legislative body elected directly by their voters.
They also have independent Courts of Law for common justice. Despite this, states have much less autonomy to create their own laws than in the United States.
For example, criminal and civil laws can be voted by only the federal bicameral Congress and are uniform throughout the country.
The states and the federal district may be grouped into regions: Northern , Northeast , Central-West , Southeast and Southern.
The Brazilian regions are merely geographical, not political or administrative divisions, and they do not have any specific form of government.
Although defined by law, Brazilian regions are useful mainly for statistical purposes, and also to define the distribution of federal funds in development projects.
Municipalities, as the states, have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Union and state government.
Indeed, a Court of Law organized by the state can encompass many municipalities in a single justice administrative division called comarca county.
Brazil is the largest national economy in Latin America , the world's ninth largest economy and the eighth largest in purchasing power parity PPP according to estimates.
Brazil has a mixed economy with abundant natural resources. After rapid growth in preceding decades, the country entered an ongoing recession in amid a political corruption scandal and nationwide protests.
Active in agricultural , mining , manufacturing and service sectors Brazil has a labor force of over million ranking 6th worldwide and unemployment of 6.
The country has been expanding its presence in international financial and commodities markets , and is one of a group of four emerging economies called the BRIC countries.
Brazil's diversified economy includes agriculture, industry, and a wide range of services. Part of the production is exported, and another part goes to the domestic market.
In the production of animal proteins, Brazil is today one of the largest countries in the world. In , the country was the world's largest exporter of chicken meat.
In terms of precious stones, Brazil is the world's largest producer of amethyst , topaz , agate and one of the main producers of tourmaline , emerald , aquamarine and garnet.
Industry in Brazil — from automobiles , steel and petrochemicals to computers , aircraft and consumer durables — accounted for In the food industry , in , Brazil was the second largest exporter of processed foods in the world.
Brazil pegged its currency, the real , to the U. However, after the East Asian financial crisis , the Russian default in  and the series of adverse financial events that followed it, the Central Bank of Brazil temporarily changed its monetary policy to a managed float regime  scheme while undergoing a currency crisis , until definitively changing the exchange regime to free-float in January Brazil's central bank repaid the IMF loan in , although it was not due to be repaid until The largest transaction with involvement of Brazilian companies was the Cia.
The first car with an ethanol engine was produced in and the first airplane engine running on ethanol in Recent oil discoveries in the Pre-salt layer have opened the door for a large increase in oil production.
In January this year, 3. Tourism in Brazil is a growing sector and key to the economy of several regions of the country. The country had 6.
Natural areas are its most popular tourism product, a combination of ecotourism with leisure and recreation , mainly sun and beach, and adventure travel , as well as cultural tourism.
In terms of the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index TTCI , which is a measurement of the factors that make it attractive to develop business in the travel and tourism industry of individual countries, Brazil ranked in the 28st place at the world's level, third in the Americas , after Canada and United States.
Brazil's main competitive advantages are its natural resources, which ranked 1st on this criteria out of all countries considered, and ranked 23rd for its cultural resources, due to its many World Heritage sites.
The TTCI report notes Brazil's main weaknesses: its ground transport infrastructure remains underdeveloped ranked th , with the quality of roads ranking in th place; and the country continues to suffer from a lack of price competitiveness ranked th , due in part to high ticket taxes and airport charges, as well as high prices and high taxation.
Safety and security have improved significantly: 75th in , up from th in According to the World Tourism Organization WTO , international travel to Brazil accelerated in , particularly during and However, in a slow-down took place, and international arrivals had almost no growth in — This favorable trend is the result of the strong devaluation of the US dollar against the Brazilian Real , which began in , but which makes Brazil a more expensive international destination.
This trend changed in , when both visitors and revenues fell as a result of the Great Recession of — Despite continuing record-breaking international tourism revenues, the number of Brazilian tourists travelling overseas has been growing steadily since , resulting in a net negative foreign exchange balance, as more money is spent abroad by Brazilians than comes in as receipts from international tourists visiting Brazil.
In , tourism contributed with 3. Technological research in Brazil is largely carried out in public universities and research institutes, with the majority of funding for basic research coming from various government agencies.
The Brazilian Space Agency has the most advanced space program in Latin America, with significant resources to launch vehicles, and manufacture of satellites.
Brazil is one of the three countries in Latin America  with an operational Synchrotron Laboratory, a research facility on physics, chemistry, material science and life sciences, and Brazil is the only Latin American country to have a semiconductor company with its own fabrication plant , the CEITEC.
Brazil also has a large number of outstanding scientific personalities. Brazilian roads are the primary carriers of freight and passenger traffic.
The road system totaled 1. Kubitschek was responsible for the installation of major car manufacturers in the country Volkswagen , Ford and General Motors arrived in Brazil during his rule and one of the points used to attract them was support for the construction of highways.
With the implementation of Fiat in ending an automobile market closed loop, from the end of the s the country has received large foreign direct investments installing in its territory other major car manufacturers and utilities, such as Iveco , Renault , Peugeot , Citroen , Honda , Mitsubishi , Mercedes-Benz , BMW , Hyundai , Toyota among others.
Brazil's railway system has been declining since , when emphasis shifted to highway construction.
The country has an extensive rail network of 28, kilometres 17, miles in length, the tenth largest network in the world. There are about 2, airports in Brazil, including landing fields: the second largest number in the world, after the United States.
For freight transport waterways are of importance, e. The country also has 50, kilometres 31, miles of waterways.
Coastal shipping links widely separated parts of the country. Bolivia and Paraguay have been given free ports at Santos.
The Brazilian public health system, the Unified Health System SUS , is managed and provided by all levels of government,  being the largest system of this type in the world.
Public health services are universal and offered to all citizens of the country for free. In , Brazil had 1. Despite all the progress made since the creation of the universal health care system in , there are still several public health problems in Brazil.
In , the main points to be solved were the high infant 2. The number of deaths from noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases Finally, external but preventable factors such as car accidents, violence and suicide caused The Federal Constitution and the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education determine that the Union , the states , the Federal District , and the municipalities must manage and organize their respective education systems.
Each of these public educational systems is responsible for its own maintenance, which manages funds as well as the mechanisms and funding sources.
According to the IBGE , in , the literacy rate of the population was Higher education starts with undergraduate or sequential courses , which may offer different options of specialization in academic or professional careers.
Depending on the choice, students can improve their educational background with courses of post-graduate studies or broad sense.
Attending an institution of higher education is required by Law of Guidelines and Bases of Education. Kindergarten , elementary and medium education are required of all students, provided the student does not hold any disability, whether physical, mental , visual or hearing.
Of the top 20 Latin American universities, eight are Brazilian. Most of them are public. Brazil's private institutions tend to be more exclusive and offer better quality education, so many high-income families send their children there.
The result is a segregated educational system that reflects extreme income disparities and reinforces social inequality. However, efforts to change this are making impacts.
The Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro , the first newspaper published in the country, began to circulate on 10 September Radio broadcasting began on 7 September , with a speech by then President Pessoa, and was formalized on 20 April with the creation of "Radio Society of Rio de Janeiro.
The first census in Brazil was carried out in and recorded a population of 9,, In the s the annual population growth rate was 2.
In , the illiteracy rate was It was highest In , the National Indian Foundation estimated that Brazil has 67 different uncontacted tribes, up from their estimate of 40 in Brazil is believed to have the largest number of uncontacted peoples in the world.
Race and ethnicity in Brazil   . Brazilian society is more markedly divided by social class lines , although a high income disparity is found between race groups , so racism and classism can be conflated.
Socially significant closeness to one racial group is taken in account more in the basis of appearance phenotypes rather than ancestry, to the extent that full siblings can pertain to different "racial" groups.
The brown population officially called pardo in Portuguese, also colloquially moreno   is a broad category that includes caboclos assimilated Amerindians in general, and descendants of Whites and Natives , mulatos descendants of primarily Whites and Afro-Brazilians and cafuzos descendants of Afro-Brazilians and Natives.
About five million people from over 60 countries migrated to Brazil between and , most of them of Portuguese , Italian , Spanish , German , Ukrainian , Polish , Jewish , Russian , Chinese , Japanese , and Arab origin.
Religion in Brazil Census. Roman Catholicism is the country's predominant faith. Brazil has the world's largest Catholic population.
Religion in Brazil was formed from the meeting of the Catholic Church with the religious traditions of enslaved African peoples and indigenous peoples.
Other Protestant branches with a notable presence in the country include the Baptists , Seventh-day Adventists , Lutherans and the Reformed tradition.
However, in the last ten years Protestantism, particularly in forms of Pentecostalism and Evangelicalism, has spread in Brazil, while the proportion of Catholics has dropped significantly.
The agreement confirmed norms that were normally complied with regarding religious education in public elementary schools which also ensures the teaching of other beliefs , marriage and spiritual assistance in prisons and hospitals.
The project was criticized by parliamentarians who understood the end of the secular state with the approval of the agreement. The official language of Brazil is Portuguese  Article 13 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Brazil , which almost all of the population speaks and is virtually the only language used in newspapers, radio, television, and for business and administrative purposes.
Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas, making the language an important part of Brazilian national identity and giving it a national culture distinct from those of its Spanish-speaking neighbors.
Brazilian Portuguese has had its own development, mostly similar to 16th-century Central and Southern dialects of European Portuguese  despite a very substantial number of Portuguese colonial settlers, and more recent immigrants , coming from Northern regions , and in minor degree Portuguese Macaronesia , with a few influences from the Amerindian and African languages , especially West African and Bantu restricted to the vocabulary only.
These differences are comparable to those between American and British English. In , the Community of Portuguese Language Countries CPLP , which included representatives from all countries with Portuguese as the official language, reached an agreement on the reform of the Portuguese orthography to unify the two standards then in use by Brazil on one side and the remaining lusophone countries on the other.
This spelling reform went into effect in Brazil on 1 January In Portugal, the reform was signed into law by the President on 21 July allowing for a six-year adaptation period, during which both orthographies will co-exist.
The remaining CPLP countries are free to establish their own transition timetables. The sign language law legally recognized in ,  the law was regulated in  the use of the Brazilian Sign Language , more commonly known by its Portuguese acronym LIBRAS, in education and government services.
The language must be taught as a part of the education and speech and language pathology curricula. Schools and health services must provide access " inclusion " to deaf people.
Minority languages are spoken throughout the nation. The Chileans place great value in the Swiss brand.
Especially Cleantech companies and innovative SMEs of other sectors like Life Sciences have great opportunities in Chile and will find a good infrastructure in place to expand their business.
The economy has doubled in the past 20 years. Beginning with the outbreak of COVID 19, the government offered benefits related to imports of drugs and medical devices.
Moreover several new public tenders related to cleantech, oil and gas, mining, construction, and infrastructure projects are announced that are open to international investors and solution providers.
High-tech and innovation are also still required for the traditional Argentine industry agricultural and food industry.
Thanks to the high-level public education system, the Argentine labor market offers a large number of highly qualified and young professionals.
The dates don't suit you? The Government Junta of Chile proclaimed Chile an autonomous republic within the Spanish monarchy in memory of this day, Chile celebrates its National Day on 18 September each year.
Spanish attempts to re-impose arbitrary rule during what was called the Reconquista led to a prolonged struggle, including infighting from Bernardo O'Higgins , who challenged Carrera's leadership.
Intermittent warfare continued until On 12 February , Chile was proclaimed an independent republic. The political revolt brought little social change, however, and 19th-century Chilean society preserved the essence of the stratified colonial social structure, which was greatly influenced by family politics and the Roman Catholic Church.
A strong presidency eventually emerged, but wealthy landowners remained powerful. Chile slowly started to expand its influence and to establish its borders.
Through the founding of Fort Bulnes by the Schooner Ancud under the command of John Williams Wilson , the Magallanes region joined the country in , while the Antofagasta region , at the time part of Bolivia, began to fill with people.
As a result of the War of the Pacific with Peru and Bolivia —83 , Chile expanded its territory northward by almost one-third, eliminating Bolivia's access to the Pacific, and acquired valuable nitrate deposits, the exploitation of which led to an era of national affluence.
Chile had joined the stand as one of the high-income countries in South America by The Chilean Civil War brought about a redistribution of power between the President and Congress, and Chile established a parliamentary style democracy.
However, the Civil War had also been a contest between those who favored the development of local industries and powerful Chilean banking interests, particularly the House of Edwards who had strong ties to foreign investors.
Soon after, the country engaged in a vastly expensive naval arms race with Argentina that nearly led to war. The Chilean economy partially degenerated into a system protecting the interests of a ruling oligarchy.
By the s, the emerging middle and working classes were powerful enough to elect a reformist president, Arturo Alessandri , whose program was frustrated by a conservative congress.
In the s, Marxist groups with strong popular support arose. A military coup led by General Luis Altamirano in set off a period of political instability that lasted until When constitutional rule was restored in , a strong middle-class party, the Radicals, emerged.
It became the key force in coalition governments for the next 20 years. During the period of Radical Party dominance —52 , the state increased its role in the economy.
The presidential election of Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei Montalva by an absolute majority initiated a period of major reform.
Under the slogan "Revolution in Liberty", the Frei administration embarked on far-reaching social and economic programs, particularly in education, housing, and agrarian reform , including rural unionization of agricultural workers.
By , however, Frei encountered increasing opposition from leftists, who charged that his reforms were inadequate, and from conservatives, who found them excessive.
At the end of his term, Frei had not fully achieved his party's ambitious goals. Allende was not elected with an absolute majority, receiving fewer than 35 percent of votes.
The Chilean Congress conducted a runoff vote between the leading candidates, Allende and former president Jorge Alessandri, and, keeping with tradition, chose Allende by a vote of to Frei refused to form an alliance with Alessandri to oppose Allende, on the grounds that the Christian Democrats were a workers' party and could not make common cause with the right wing.
An economic depression that began in was exacerbated by capital flight , plummeting private investment, and withdrawal of bank deposits in response to Allende's socialist program.
Production fell and unemployment rose. Allende adopted measures including price freezes, wage increases, and tax reforms, to increase consumer spending and redistribute income downward.
Many enterprises within the copper , coal, iron, nitrate , and steel industries were expropriated , nationalized, or subjected to state intervention.
Industrial output increased sharply and unemployment fell during the Allende administration's first year. Allende's program included advancement of workers' interests,   replacing the judicial system with "socialist legality",  nationalization of banks and forcing others to bankruptcy,  and strengthening "popular militias" known as MIR.
The measure was passed unanimously by Congress. As a result,  the Richard Nixon administration organized and inserted secret operatives in Chile, in order to swiftly destabilize Allende's government.
The economic problems were also exacerbated by Allende's public spending which was financed mostly by printing money and poor credit ratings given by commercial banks.
The crippled economy was further battered by prolonged and sometimes simultaneous strikes by physicians, teachers, students, truck owners, copper workers, and the small business class.
On 26 May , Chile's Supreme Court, which was opposed to Allende's government, unanimously denounced the Allende disruption of the legality of the nation.
Although illegal under the Chilean constitution, the court supported and strengthened Pinochet's soon-to-be seizure of power. A military coup overthrew Allende on 11 September As the armed forces bombarded the presidential palace , Allende apparently committed suicide.
A military junta, led by General Augusto Pinochet , took control of the country. The first years of the regime were marked by human rights violations.
Chile actively participated in Operation Condor. The stadium was renamed for Jara in A new Constitution was approved by a controversial plebiscite on 11 September , and General Pinochet became president of the republic for an eight-year term.
After Pinochet obtained rule of the country, several hundred committed Chilean revolutionaries joined the Sandinista army in Nicaragua , guerrilla forces in Argentina or training camps in Cuba , Eastern Europe and Northern Africa.
In the late s, largely as a result of events such as the economic collapse  and mass civil resistance in —88, the government gradually permitted greater freedom of assembly, speech , and association, to include trade union and political activity.
Chile moved toward a free market economy that saw an increase in domestic and foreign private investment, although the copper industry and other important mineral resources were not opened for competition.
Chileans elected a new president and the majority of members of a bicameral congress on 14 December On 27 February , Chile was struck by an 8.
More than people died most from the ensuing tsunami and over a million people lost their homes. The earthquake was also followed by multiple aftershocks.
Chile achieved global recognition for the successful rescue of 33 trapped miners in A rescue effort organized by the Chilean government located the miners 17 days later.
All 33 men were brought to the surface two months later on 13 October over a period of almost 24 hours, an effort that was carried on live television around the world.
It entered into force in March After Pinochet's defeat in the plebiscite , the constitution was amended to ease provisions for future amendments to the Constitution.
In September , President Ricardo Lagos signed into law several constitutional amendments passed by Congress. These include eliminating the positions of appointed senators and senators for life , granting the President authority to remove the commanders-in-chief of the armed forces, and reducing the presidential term from six to four years.
Senators serve for eight years with staggered terms, while deputies are elected every 4 years. The last congressional elections were held on 17 November , concurrently with the presidential election.
The current Senate has a 21—15 split in favor of the governing coalition and 2 independents. The current lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, contains 67 members of the governing center-left coalition, 48 from the center-right opposition and 5 from small parties or independents.
Chile's congressional elections are governed by a binomial system that, for the most part, rewards the two largest representations equally, often regardless of their relative popular support.
Only if the leading coalition ticket out-polls the second place coalition by a margin of more than 2-to-1 does the winning coalition gain both seats, which tends to lock the legislature in a roughly 50—50 split.
Chile's judiciary is independent and includes a court of appeal, a system of military courts, a constitutional tribunal, and the Supreme Court of Chile.
In June , Chile completed a nationwide overhaul of its criminal justice system. In the congressional elections, the conservative Independent Democratic Union UDI surpassed the Christian Democrats for the first time to become the largest party in the lower house.
In the legislative elections in Chile, the Communist Party won 3 out of seats in the Chamber of Deputies for the first time in 30 years the Communist Party was not allowed to exist as such during the dictatorship.
Chileans voted in the first round of presidential elections on 17 November None of the nine presidential candidates got more than 50 percent of the vote.
This was Chile's sixth presidential election since the end of the Pinochet era. All six have been judged free and fair. The president is constitutionally barred from serving consecutive terms.
Since the early decades after independence, Chile has always had an active involvement in foreign affairs. In the country aggressively challenged the dominance of Peru's port of Callao for preeminence in the Pacific trade routes, defeating the short-lived alliance between Peru and Bolivia, the Peru-Bolivian Confederation —39 in the War of the Confederation.
The war dissolved the confederation while distributing power in the Pacific. A second international war, the War of the Pacific —83 , further increased Chile's regional role, while adding considerably to its territory.
During the 19th century, Chile's commercial ties were primarily with Britain, a nation that had a major influence on the formation of the Chilean navy.
The French influenced Chile's legal and educational systems and had a decisive impact on Chile, through the architecture of the capital in the boom years at the turn of the 20th century.
German influence came from the organization and training of the army by Prussians. Since its return to democracy in , Chile has been an active participant in the international political arena.
Jose Miguel Insulza, a Chilean national, was elected Secretary General of the Organization of American States in May and confirmed in his position, being re-elected in The country is an active member of the UN family of agencies and participates in UN peacekeeping activities.
An associate member of Mercosur and a full member of APEC, Chile has been a major player in international economic issues and hemispheric free trade.
There have been many arguments between Chileans and Peruvians since the s because they both claim boundary coastal lines. This is also known as the "triangulation" which was made to fix the boundary problem between Chile and Peru.
The decisions were accomplished on 27 January by the International Court of Justice  This became the War of the Pacific which was in the years — Chile had to control sea shipping to Peru and sent out an army to invade Peru on 8 October The attempt was also made to The United States but failed badly in October There was a resistance between Peruvians and Chileans for a few years because they could not reach an agreement.
This was later signed by both of them on 20 October to keep peace between them. In , Peru took Chile to court over their maritime disputes.
Then later in , the International Court of Justice's ruling resulted in Chile losing 80 miles from Northwestern ocean zone.
The Chilean government has diplomatic relations with most countries. It settled all its territorial disputes with Argentina during the s except for part of the border at Southern Patagonian Ice Field.
Chile and Bolivia severed diplomatic ties in over Bolivia's desire to regain sovereign access to the Pacific Ocean after losing it to Chile in the —83 War of the Pacific.
The two countries maintain consular relations and are represented at the Consul General level. In Chile was administratively divided into regions ,  and in subdivided into provinces and these into communes.
Each region is designated by a name and a Roman numeral assigned from north to south, except for the Santiago Metropolitan Region , which does not have a number.
The national flower is the copihue Lapageria rosea , Chilean bellflower , which grows in the woods of southern Chile.
The coat of arms depicts the two national animals: the condor Vultur gryphus , a very large bird that lives in the mountains and the huemul Hippocamelus bisulcus, an endangered white tail deer.
The flag of Chile consists of two equal horizontal bands of white top and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red stands for the blood spilled to achieve independence.
The flag of Chile is similar to the Flag of Texas , although the Chilean flag is 21 years older. The Armed Forces of Chile are subject to civilian control exercised by the president through the Minister of Defense.
The president has the authority to remove the commanders-in-chief of the armed forces. The Chilean Army is one of the most professional and technologically advanced armies in Latin America.
Of the fleet of 29 surface vessels, only eight are operational major combatants frigates. The Navy also operates four submarines based in Talcahuano.
The Air Force took delivery of the final two of ten Fs, all purchased from the U. Chile also took delivery in of a number of reconditioned Block 15 Fs from the Netherlands, bringing to 18 the total of Fs purchased from the Dutch.
After the military coup in September the Chilean national police Carabineros were incorporated into the Defense Ministry. With the return of democratic government, the police were placed under the operational control of the Interior Ministry but remained under the nominal control of the Defense Ministry.
It is situated within the Pacific Ring of Fire. Chile is among the longest north—south countries in the world. If one considers only mainland territory, Chile is unique within this group in its narrowness from east to west, with the other long north—south countries including Brazil , Russia , Canada , and the United States, among others all being wider from east to west by a factor of more than However, this latter claim is suspended under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty , of which Chile is a signatory.
Also controlled but only temporarily inhabited by some local fishermen are the small islands of San Ambrosio and San Felix. These islands are notable because they extend Chile's claim to territorial waters out from its coast into the Pacific Ocean.
The northern Atacama Desert contains great mineral wealth, primarily copper and nitrates. The relatively small Central Valley, which includes Santiago, dominates the country in terms of population and agricultural resources.
This area is also the historical center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century, when it integrated the northern and southern regions.
Southern Chile is rich in forests, grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands.
The Andes Mountains are located on the eastern border. The diverse climate of Chile ranges from the world's driest desert in the north—the Atacama Desert —through a Mediterranean climate in the center, humid subtropical in Easter Island, to an oceanic climate , including alpine tundra and glaciers in the east and south.
There are four seasons in most of the country: summer December to February , autumn March to May , winter June to August , and spring September to November.
The flora and fauna of Chile are characterized by a high degree of endemism, due to its particular geography. In continental Chile, the Atacama Desert in the north and the Andes mountains to the east are barriers that have led to the isolation of flora and fauna.
The native flora of Chile consists of relatively fewer species compared to the flora of other South American countries. The northernmost coastal and central region is largely barren of vegetation, approaching the most absolute desert in the world.
The central valley is characterized by several species of cacti, the hardy espinos , the Chilean pine , the southern beeches and the copihue , a red bell-shaped flower that is Chile's national flower.
Grassland is found in Atlantic Chile in Patagonia. Much of the Chilean flora is distinct from that of neighboring Argentina, indicating that the Andean barrier existed during its formation.
Some of Chile's flora has an Antarctic origin due to land bridges which formed during the Cretaceous ice ages, allowing plants to migrate from Antarctica to South America.
Just over 3, species of fungi are recorded in Chile,   but this number is far from complete. The true total number of fungal species occurring in Chile is likely to be far higher, given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7 percent of all fungi worldwide have so far been discovered.
Chile's geographical isolation has restricted the immigration of faunal life, so that only a few of the many distinctive South American animals are found.
Among the larger mammals are the puma or cougar, the llama-like guanaco and the fox-like chilla. In the forest region, several types of marsupials and a small deer known as the pudu are found.
There are many species of small birds, but most of the larger common Latin American types are absent. Few freshwater fish are native, but North American trout have been successfully introduced into the Andean lakes.
Whales are abundant, and some six species of seals are found in the area. Chile is located along a highly seismic and volcanic zone, part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, due to the subduction of the Nazca and Antarctic plates in the South American plate.
Late Paleozoic , million years ago, Chile belonged to the continental block called Gondwana. It was just a depression accumulated marine sediments began to rise at the end of the Mesozoic, 66 million years ago, due to the collision between the Nazca and South American plates, resulting in the Andes.
The territory would be shaped by millions of years due to the folding of the rocks, forming the current relief.
Chile's highest peak is the Nevado Ojos del Salado , at Among the coastal mountains and the Pacific is a series of coastal plains, of variable length, which allow the settlement of coastal towns and big ports.
Some areas of the plains territories encompass territory east of the Andes, and the Patagonian steppes and Magellan, or are high plateaus surrounded by high mountain ranges, such as the Altiplano or Puna de Atacama.
It is characterized by the presence of the Atacama desert , the most arid in the world. The desert is fragmented by streams that originate in the area known as the pampas Tamarugal.
The Andes, split in two and whose eastern arm runs Bolivia , has a high altitude and volcanic activity, which has allowed the formation of the Andean altiplano and salt structures as the Salar de Atacama , due to the gradual accumulation of sediments over time.
To the south is the Norte Chico , extending to the Aconcagua river. The two mountain ranges intersect, virtually eliminating the intermediate depression.
The existence of rivers flowing through the territory allows the formation of transverse valleys , where agriculture has developed strongly in recent times, while the coastal plains begin to expand.
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